Ruby on Rails
Java, Distributed Systems
Drupal Development and Deployment using Git
Most of the current CMSs mix their "bare" source code with configuration data, third party plugins, themes, etc. One example is Drupal where your settings.php configuration is found under the sub folder sites/default, third party themes under themes and third party modules under sites/all/modules. If you want to have your code in a version control system and at the same time support easy updates to all those software parts, a clever setup is required.
Wordpress is similar, e.g. the "wp-content" folder - hence the approach shown also applies to Wordpress.
This guide is based on the Git WebDAV setup from kernel.org - if something doesn't work for you, especially in the first part of this guide, you may find an answer there.
Install Git on the server for WebDAV
First you have to initialize a new Git repository on the server. I'm using the name server-repo in this example. Change it if you like ;-)
sudo mkdir /var/git cd /var/git sudo mkdir server-repo cd server-repo sudo git init --bare sudo git-update-server-info cd .. sudo chown -R www-data:www-data server-repo
We also need the WebDAV users file (replace username with your user name):
sudo htpasswd -c /var/git/server-repo.gitusers username
Now add the following to your apache config:
Alias /git /var/git <Location /git/server-repo> DAV on AuthType Basic AuthName "Git repository" AuthUserFile /var/git/sever-repo.gitusers Require valid-user </Location>
Create an new repository locally
This part is similar to the method shown by the Version Control Blog, except I will not use cloning but branching instead.
So, let's create an empty Git repository on your development machine:
cd ~ mkdir local-repo cd local-repo git init
Create a branch for Drupal:
git checkout -b drupal
... and extract the drupal installation archive into your local repository:
tar xvzf drupal-6.5.tar.gz mv drupal-6.5 drupal
Great, let's commit this branch:
git add . git commit -a -m "Initial Drupal commit"
The drupal branch will contain the "pure" drupal source code. Nothing else should ever end up in this branch.
In order to add modules to your drupal installation, let's create an new branch containing drupal plus all modules you require:
git checkout drupal git checkout -b modules
Create the modules folder under sites/all an copy all your modules inside:
cd drupal/sites/all mkdir modules cd modules tar xzvf yourmodule.tar.gz ...
Now comes a third branch with all your changes, e.g. .htaccess, own themes, modifications to the Drupal core, the modules used, etc. I'll name this branch "production" and it's based on the modules branch.
git checkout modules git branch -b production
Inside this branch your first want to create the sites/default/settings.php file and create the files folder - basically everything you do when you setup a new Drupal based web site.
That's the basic setup.
Pushing your local repository to the server repository
Set the remote repository URL on your server:
git-config remote.origin.url http://your-server/git/server-repo/
First lets push the drupal branch:
git checkout drupal git push origin drupal:drupal
... and the other two branches:
git checkout modules git push origin modules:modules git checkout production git push origin production:production
If there is a new Drupal version you checkout the drupal branch and extract drupal there:
git checkout drupal rm -rf drupal tar xvzf drupal-6.6.tar.gz mv drupal-6.6 drupal
... and commit your modifications to the drupal branch and push it to the server.
git add . git commit -a -m "Drupal 6.6 update" git push
Next you'll have to pull the updated drupal branch into the other two branches:
git checkout modules git pull . drupal git checkout production git pull . modules
And push it to the server repository:
Deploy it to the server
Simply ssh to your server and clone the server repository and checkout the production branch:
git clone http://your-server/git/server-repo/ cd server-repo git checkout remotes/origin/production git checkout -b production
And for updates:
git pull origin production
On authenticated WebDAV Git currently only supports netrc. So you have to create a .netrc file in your home directory:
machine your-server login username password your-password
If you are using a self-signed certificate on your web server and get errors use the following ...
GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY=1 git pull ...
... or if you already have a local repository:
git-config http.sslverify false